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What is memory?

Most of us worry about experiencing memory problems as we get older. Here’s what you need to know about how memory works, and how you can help support it

Written by Beth Gibbons on March 24, 2019 Reviewed by Dr Nihara Krause on March 27, 2019

Confusing appointment dates or becoming more forgetful? We all worry about losing our memory as we get older, but memory problems can be caused by a number of different factors and are not necessarily a sign of something more serious such as dementia.

What is memory?

Memory is your mind’s ability to store and remember information, and it involves a complex network of neural pathways spanning the entire brain.1 It’s thought there are three main memory stores in your brain:2,3

  • sensory register – information from your senses stays here for just a split second
  • working memory – your short-term memory helps process information and hang on to memories for up to 30 seconds
  • long-term memory – with an unlimited capacity for storage, memories retained here can last a lifetime

How does memory work?

Firstly, information from your senses is converted by neurons into electrical impulses and chemical signals – a process known as encoding.4 These signals travel to your brain’s hippocampus, where important information from your working memory is filtered. New neuron connections are created to house this important information – and a shiny, new long-term memory is born.5

What can go wrong with your memory?

Memory problems are not automatically a symptom of Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Some common causes of memory changes include:6,7

    • stress
    • anxiety or depression


  • hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or menopause
  • some medications
  • a nutritional deficiency, like vitamin B-12
  • medical conditions, like an underactive thyroid
  • drinking too much alcohol

Many of these causes are short term, and your memory should get back on track once you tackle them. If you’re experiencing on-going issues with your memory, see your GP. They can help rule out any of the causes above, and may recommend any treatment, such as changing your medication, if necessary.

Our memory also starts to decline as a natural part of ageing. As we get older, the connections between brain cells can weaken, and memory can falter. One theory is that this is due to cell loss in a region of the brain responsible for making acetylcholine, a chemical vital for learning and memory.8 Another issue is that the brain naturally shrinks as we age.9

Is it an ageing memory or the start of dementia?

We all have memory lapses from time to time, and these often get worse with age. But being a bit forgetful isn’t necessarily a sign of dementia. In Alzheimer’s disease, for example, accelerated ageing of the brain makes it hard to retain information to such a degree that it affects everyday life, not just the occasional blip.

The condition also affects other cognitive functions such as decision-making, time management and judgement.10 A deterioration in memory is just one symptom of dementia but if you also experience these other cognitive issues, make an appointment for an assessment with your doctor.

How to keep your memory healthy

Making certain lifestyle changes can support your memory, and may help slow or even reverse the brain changes associated with ageing:

Stay active

Exercise increases blood flow to the brain, helping to nourish and protect your little grey cells.11 This makes it more efficient, so thinking and memory is improved.

Sleep well

A good night’s sleep is incredibly important, as it allows the brain to process memories more effectively.12 In a small 2015 study by Boston scientists, 14 people were better able to remember a list of faces and names if they had slept beforehand.13

Nourish your memory

Tuck into fruit and veg – many contain plant chemicals called flavonoids that can encourage new nerve cell growth in the hippocampus.14 Indeed, a 2018 study in Neurology reported that older people who ate at least one serving of leafy green vegetables a day performed better in memory tests than those who rarely ate veg.15 Cranberries, strawberries, apples, tomatoes, spinach and broccoli are all rich in flavonoids.

Up your omega-3 intake – oily fish or flaxseeds contain omega-3 fatty acids that can have an anti-inflammatory effect on the brain, according to a 2015 Australian study.16 Be aware that omega-3 can interact with some medications including blood-thinners, so talk to your GP if you’ve got any questions.

Try ginkgo biloba – a 2011 report in in Phytomedicine found the herb improved memory recall in healthy, middle-aged people.17 It’s thought that ginkgo biloba can increase blood flow to the brain and strengthen communication between neurons.18

Stimulate your mind

Volunteers using an online brain-training program for 15 minutes, five times a week, significantly improved their memory compared with a control group, according to a 2015 study in PLoS One.19 Having a hobby or hanging out with friends may be effective, too – American researchers say older people who are socially active or have favourite hobbies are less likely to develop memory issues.20

Manage your stress levels

In a 2018 study in Neurology, middle-aged adults with high levels of the stress hormone cortisol performed much worse in memory tasks.21 Take time to relax every day and consider meditation; not only does it lower levels of cortisol,22 a 2005 US study found it increases thickness of the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with memory.23,24 Shop Vitamins & Supplements Advice is for information only and should not replace medical care. Please check with your GP before trying any remedies.


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